ရတနာ၀ါသ ဘုရားေက်ာင္း 華緬 三寶寺

Chong Li, Taiwan R.O.C

တရားဂုဏ္ေတာ္ (၆)ပါး Qualities of Dhamma 素質的佛法


ဘဂဝတာ-ျမတ္စြာဘုရားသည္၊ သြာကၡာေတာ-ေကာင္းစြာ ေဟာၾကားအပ္ေတာ္မူေသာ၊ ဓေမၼာ- တရားေတာ္သည္။
bhagavata dhammno
The Teaching of the Buddha also has six supreme qualities:
佛陀的教學也有6個最高品質:

၁။ သြာကၡာေတာ- ကိေလသာၿငိမ္းေၾကာင္း ေကာင္းမြန္မွန္ကန္စြာ ေဟာႀကားေတာ္မူအပ္ေသာ တရားေတာ္ျမတ္ပါေပတကား။


Svakkhato

1. Svākkhāto (Sanskrit: Svākhyāta "well proclaimed"). Buddhists claim that the Dhamma is not a speculative philosophy, but is the Universal Law found through enlightenment and is preached precisely. Obviously this is false since all religion, and to a certain extent all philosophy, is necessarily speculative philosophy.

But, they say that it is excellent in the beginning (sīla – Sanskrit śīla – moral principles), excellent in the middle (samādhi – concentration) and excellent in the end (paññā - Sanskrit prajñā . . . Wisdom).


Svākkhāto(梵語:Svākhyāta“以及宣稱”)。 Buddhists claim that the Dhamma is not a speculative philosophy, but is the Universal Law found through enlightenment and is preached precisely.佛教徒聲稱,佛法不是投機哲學,而且是普遍規律中發現的啟示,是鼓吹準確。 Obviously this is false since all religion, and to a certain extent all philosophy, is necessarily speculative philosophy.這顯然是錯誤的,因為所有的宗教,以及在一定程度上所有的哲學,必然是投機的哲學。 But, they say that it is excellent in the beginning ( sīla – Sanskrit śīla – moral principles), excellent in the middle ( samādhi – concentration) and excellent in the end (paññā - Sanskrit prajñā . . . Wisdom).但是,他們說,這是很好的開始( 西拉 -梵語西拉 -道德原則),優秀的中層( 三摩地 -濃度)和優秀結束(潘納-梵語般若 。。。智慧)。


၂။ သႏိၵ႒ိေကာ- က်င့္ႀကံအားထုတ္လွ်င္ မ်က္ေမွာက္ကိုယ္တိုင္ ေတြ႕ျမင္ႏိုင္ေသာ တရားေတာ္ျမတ္ပါေပတကား။

sanditthiko

2. Sandiṭṭhiko (Sanskrit: Sāṃdṛṣṭika "able to be examined"). The Dhamma can be tested by practice and
therefore he who follows it will see the result by himself through his own experience.

Sandiṭṭhiko(梵語:Sāṃdṛṣṭika“能夠被審查”)。 The Dhamma can be tested by practice and therefore he who follows it will see the result by himself through his own experience.佛法可以通過實踐檢驗,因此,誰跟隨會看到結果由他自己通過自己的經驗。

၃။ အကာလိေကာ- အခ်ိန္အခြင့္ မဆိုင္းလင့္ဘဲ အသင့္လက္ငင္း ခ်က္ခ်င္း အက်ိဳးေပးတတ္ေသာ တရားေတာ္ျမတ္ပါေပတကား။

akaliko

3. Akāliko (Sanskrit: Akālika "immediate"). The Dhamma is able to bestow timeless and immediate results here and now, for which there is no need to wait until the future or next existence. Dhamma is
not changing with the time and it is not relative to time.

Akāliko(梵語:Akālika“立即”)。 The Dhamma is able to bestow timeless and immediate results here and now, for which there is no need to wait until the future or next existence.佛法能夠賦予永恆的直接結果,現在在這裡,因為這是沒有必要等到將來或未來的存在。 Dhamma is not changing with the time and it is not relative to time佛法是不會改變的時間,它不是相對時間

၄။ ဧဟိပႆိေကာ- "လာပါ၊ၾကည့္လွည့္ပါ" ဟု က်င့္ႀကံအားထုတ္ရန္ ဖိတ္မန္ တိုက္တြန္းထိုက္ေသာ တရားေတာ္ျမတ္ပါေပတကား။

ehipassiko

4. Ehipassiko (Sanskrit: Ehipaśyika "which you can come and see" -- from the phrase ehi, paśya "come, see!"). The Dhamma welcomes all beings to put it to the test and come see for themselves.

Ehipassiko(梵語:Ehipaśyika“你可以來看看” -從語埃希,paśya“來吧,看看!”)。 The Dhamma welcomes all beings to put it to the test and come see for themselves.佛法歡迎所有的人以把它放到測試和來看看自己。

၅။ ဩပေနယ်ိေကာ-မိမိသႏၱာန္၌တည္ေအာင္ က်င့္ေဆာင္ထိုက္ေသာ တရားေတာ္ျမတ္ပါေပတကား။

opaneyyiko

5. Opanayiko (Sanskrit: Avapraṇayika "leading one close to"). The Dhamma is capable of being entered upon and therefore it is worthy to be followed as a part of one's life. In the "Vishuddhimagga" this is also referred to as "Upanayanam."


Opanayiko(梵語:Avapraṇayika“領導一個比較接近”)。 The Dhamma is capable of being entered upon and therefore it is worthy to be followed as a part of one's life.佛法能夠被輸入後,因此它是值得遵循的一部分,作為一個人的一生。 In the "Vishuddhimagga" this is also referred to as " Upanayanam ."在“Vishuddhimagga”這是也被稱為“ Upanayanam 。“



၆။ ပစၥတၱံ ေဝဒိတေဗၺာ ဝိၫဴဟိ-တရားျမင္သိသည့္ ပညာ႐ွိ႐ွစ္ပါး အရိယာမ်ားသာလွ်င္ ကိုယ့္တရားႏွင့္ကိုယ္ အသီးသီး

သိျမင္ခံစားရေသာ တရားေတာ္ျမတ္ပါေပတကား။

paccattam veditabbo vinnuhiti.

6. Paccattaṃ veditabbo viññūhi (Sanskrit: Pratyātmaṃ veditavyo vijñaiḥ "To be personally known by the wise"). The Dhamma can be perfectly realized only by the noble disciples (Ariyas) who have matured and
enlightened enough in supreme wisdom.


Paccattaṃveditabbo viññūhi(梵語:Pratyātmaṃveditavyovijñaiḥ“要親自已知的智慧”)。 The Dhamma can be perfectly realized only by the noble disciples (Ariyas) who have matured and enlightened enough in supreme wisdom.佛法完全可以實現的,只有貴族弟子(Ariyas)誰擁有足夠的成熟,開明的最高智慧。




သြာကၡာတ- အစ႐ွိေသာ ဤဂုဏ္ေတာ္ ၆-ပါးႏွင့္ ျပည့္စံုေတာ္မူေသာ မဂ္ေလးပါး ဖိုလ္ေလးပါး နိဗၺာန္ ပရိယတ္အားျဖင့္ ဆယ္ပါးေသာ တရားေတာ္ျမတ္ကို ဘုရားတပည့္ေတာ္သည္ ႐ိုေသျမတ္ႏိုး လက္အုပ္မိုး၍ ႐ွိခိုးပူေဇာ္ ဖူးေျမာ္မာန္ေလွ်ာ့ ကန္ေတာ့ပါ၏အရွင္ဘုရား။



The Dhamma 佛法

The meaning of Dhamma 意義的佛法

Etymologically, the word Dhamma (Sanskrit: Dharma ) is derived from the root "dham," meaning "to uphold" or "to support," and the commentary further explains that it is that which upholds or
supports the practitioner (of Dhamma) and prevents him or her from
falling into evil states or birth in a woeful existence.
詞源,單詞佛法(梵文: )源於根“特姆”,意思是“堅持”或“支持”和評注進一步解釋說,那就是,以維護或支持醫生(對佛法)和防止他或她從落入邪惡的國家或出生在一個可悲的存在。

Of all Buddhist terminology, the word Dhamma commands the widest, most comprehensive meaning.在所有佛教術語,這個詞佛法命令最廣,最全面的意義。 There is nothing that does not come within the purview of this word.沒有什麼事物是不屬於這個詞的範圍。 In fact, all things, animate or inanimate, all phenomena, those that can be seen or felt and those beyond our empirical perception, all
conditioned and unconditioned states, can be included in the term
Dhamma.
事實上,所有的東西,動畫或無生命的,所有的現象,那些可以看到或感覺到那些超出了我們的經驗和看法,所有空調和無條件的狀態,可以包含在這個詞佛法。
However, Dhamma as one of the Three Gems is that which is represented by the teachings of the Buddha.然而,佛法為一體的三寶石是,這是代表了佛的教誨。

The late Venerable Buddhadasa, one of the most influential thinkers and Dhamma exponents in contemporary Thailand, explains the meaning of the
term by a fourfold definition.
已故法師佛,其中一個最有影響力的思想家和佛法指數在當代泰國,解釋一詞的含義由四倍的定義。
According
to this, Dhamma means (a) the state of nature as it is, (b) the laws of
nature, (c) the duties that must be performed in accordance with the
laws of nature, and (d) the results that are derived from the
fulfillment of such duties.
根據這一點,佛法的手段(1)國家的性質,因為它是(二)法律的性質,(三)必須履行職責,依照法律的性質,和(d)的結果是來自履行這些職責。
This
definition, he claims, represents the true and complete picture of
Dhamma, and is inclusive of all things which the term refers to.
這個定義,他聲稱,代表真實,完整地了解了佛法,是包容萬物的這個術語指的是。

Buddhadasa's explanation closely follows the pattern of the Four Noble Truths, found in the very first discourse of the Buddha.佛的解釋緊隨格局的四聖諦,發現在第一次話語佛。 The first Truth deals with dukkha (suffering), a Pali term which characterizes all things that exist. Dukkha represents the state of nature as it is, which is the first of the four definitions of Dhamma.第一個真理處理dukkha(痛苦),一八里任期存在的一切事物的特點。Dukkha代表國家的性質,因為它是,這是第一個定義的四個佛法。 The second Truth deals with the cause of dukkha , comparable with the laws of nature, for it is on the laws of nature that things ( dukkha ) arise, function, and cease.第二個真理涉及的事業dukkha,可比的法律的性質,它是基於法律的性質的東西(dukkha)出現,功能和停止。 The third Truth deals with the extinction of dukkha , a state of complete freedom experienced as a result (fourth definition) of the efforts to fulfill the duty of Dhamma.第三真理處理的消光dukkha,一個國家的經驗作為一個完全自由的結果(第四次)的定義的努力履行職責的佛法。 The fourth Truth deals with the path leading to the cessation of dukkha , which is comparable to the third definition of Dhamma (duty to be fulfilled according to the laws of nature).第四真相處理路徑導致停止dukkha,這相當於給第三定義佛法(根據履行職責的法律的性質)。 By treading the path of Dhamma (performing duties) one obtains results proportionate to one's endeavor -- being free from dukkha .通過踩佛法的路徑(執行職務)1得到的結果之一相稱的努力-正在擺脫dukkha。

Understanding the Dhamma in its broadest sense, according to the doctrine of the four Noble Truths, helps us to see how closely it is
related to our lives and how we can perceive all aspects of our lives
and activities in the light of the Dhamma.
了解佛法在其最廣泛的意義上說,根據這項原則的四聖諦,幫助我們看到它是多麼地與我們的生活,我們如何看待我們生活的各個方面和活動,在光明的佛法。
For example, we can clearly see Dhamma in our experience of hunger, something very common in life.例如,我們可以清楚地看到佛法在我們的經驗,飢餓,在生活中很常見的東西。 Hunger is part of nature, a natural state of existence, which we feel the way it is ( dukkha ).飢餓是自然的一部分,自然狀態的存在,我們認為它的方式是(dukkha)。 It arises, according to the laws of nature, from certain conditions -- namely, lack of food.它發生,依照法律的性質,某些條件-即缺乏食物。 Nature
further dictates that we must perform appropriate duties with regard to
hunger, that is, we take necessary actions according to the laws of
nature (fourth Noble Truth) by eating.
性質的進一步要求我們必須進行適當的職責與飢餓方面,就是我們採取必要的行動依照法律的性質(第四諾布爾真相)吃。
As a result, hunger is appeased and we experience freedom from its pains (third Noble Truth).因此,飢餓是姑息,我們從它的痛苦經驗的自由(第三諾布爾真相)。

Of course, this is simply an analogy of how an ordinary experience may be perceived from the perspective of the Dhamma.當然,這只是一個比喻,如何處理日常經驗可能會被認為從這個角度的佛法。 It does not specifically mean that eating constitutes the fourth Noble Truth, nor is the extinction of physical hunger really the third Truth
as intended by the Buddha.
它並沒有特別的意思,吃構成了第四諾布爾真理,也不是真的滅絕飢餓的身體為目的的第三真理的佛陀。
The
analogy demonstrates the practical purpose that understanding the
Dhamma in relation to our direct experiences, and in the light of the
Four Noble Truths, serves, especially since such an attitude enables us
to live constantly in the presence of the Dhamma itself.
這個比喻說明了實際意義,理解佛法與我們的直接經驗,並在光明的四聖諦,服務,特別是因為這種態度使我們生活在不斷的佛法的存在本身。
The fourfold definition of Dhamma points to the infinite scope of the term as well as the inseparability of life and Dhamma.佛法的四倍定義點到無限的範圍內,以及不可分的生命和佛法。

Attributes of the Dhamma 屬性的佛法

There are six qualities attributed to the Dhamma in the Pali scriptures.有六個素質歸因於佛法在巴利經文。 These virtuous qualities are described in the meditation technique known as Recollection of the Dhamma ( dhammanussati ). Understanding these attributes also helps to increase conviction and faith in the Dhamma.這些善良的品質進行了說明冥想技術被稱為回憶的佛法(dhammanussati)。了解這些屬性也有助於提高信念和信仰的佛法。

The first attribute of the Dhamma is its comprehensive exposition by the Buddha, who realized it through his direct experience.第一個屬性的佛法是它全面闡述了佛,誰知道它通過他的直接經驗。 The Buddha's omniscience and boundless compassion assure us of the validity and value of his teachings, which are "fine in the beginning, fine in
the middle, and fine in the end, complete with meanings and principles
for living a noble life leading to purity and complete freedom."
佛陀的無所不知和無限的同情向我們保證的有效性和價值,他的教誨,這是“良好的開端,罰款在中間,和罰款,最終完成的含義和原則過著高尚的生活,導致純度和完全的自由。“

Secondly, the Dhamma is realizable through its practitioners' own efforts.第二,佛法是通過變現其從業人員自身的努力。 Those who practice the Buddha's teachings will see the Dhamma for themselves. They will derive the full benefits of their own commitment and will
thereby be convinced of the truth of the Dhamma.
這些誰實踐佛陀的教導佛法會看到自己。他們將獲得的全部好處自己的承諾,並因此而相信真理的佛法。
Thus, there is no need to blindly believe in what is said by others.因此,沒有必要盲目相信別人說什麼。

The third attribute of Dhamma is expressed in the Pali term akalika , which is translated either as "timeless" or "yielding immediate results."第三個屬性的佛法,是體現在八里長期akalika,無論是翻譯為“永恆”或“產生立竿見影的效果。” The Dhamma is timeless because it transcends all temporal limitations; its truth is eternal.佛法是永恆的,因為它超越了所有的時空限制,它的真理是永恆的。 The Dhamma is said to yield immediate results because its effects can be experienced at each and every moment.佛法說的是立竿見影的結果,因為其效果卻可以在每一個有經驗的時刻。 The principle of conditionality, for instance, demonstrates how each phenomenon is a conditioned and conditioning link in a continuous flux
of ever-changing events.
這項原則的條件,例如,演示了如何每一個現象是空調和空調連接在一個連續的流量不斷變化的事件。
Buddhist commentators also explain akalika as the immediate attainment of results represented by the fruition consciousness ( phalacitta ) that successively follows the path consciousness ( maggacitta ) in the psychological process of transcendent realization.佛教評論員也解釋akalika的結果立即實現成果所代表的意識(phalacitta)的先後如下路徑意識(maggacitta)在心理過程中實現超越。 But this explanation is rather technical.但這種解釋是頗為技術性的。 In fact, the commentators specifically assign all attributes of the Dhamma, except the first, to transcendent experiences ( lokuttaradhamma ), although they can be more conveniently understood in the light of mundane perception.事實上,評論家特別指定的所有屬性的佛法,除第一,超越經驗(lokuttaradhamma),儘管他們可以更方便地理解了光的世俗觀念。

The fourth attribute of the Dhamma is ehipassika , usually rendered into English as "come and see."第四個屬性的佛法是ehipassika,通常呈現成英語時,“來看看。” This really means that the Dhamma is completely open to investigation and verification.這確實意味著,佛法是完全開放的調查和核查。 Because Dhamma is Truth, its worth and value do not depend on belief or faith, but are open to thorough examination and reexamination by all Truth
seekers.
因為佛法是真理,它的價值和價值不依賴於信仰或信念,而是開放的深入檢查和複查所有真相的求職者。
The
Buddha himself strongly advised his disciples not to blindly believe in
him, but to question and re-question until they were fully convinced of
the teacher and the teachings (the Dhamma).
佛陀本人強烈建議他的弟子不要盲目相信他,但問題並重新問題,直到他們完全相信,教師和教誨(即佛法)。
He
further encouraged them to put the Dhamma to test by practicing it,
"just as a goldsmith tests the purity of his gold by cutting, rubbing,
and burning it."
他還鼓勵他們把佛法實踐來檢驗它,“就像一個金匠測試其純度黃金切割,搓,燒了。”

Next, the Dhamma is said to lead to higher knowledge and the realization of Nibbana .接下來,佛法是說導致更高的知識和實現涅槃 This quality makes the practice of Dhamma highly rewarding, for the ultimate realization (of Dhamma) means the highest bliss and complete freedom
from all suffering.
這種品質使實踐佛法高回報,為最終實現(附佛法)指最高的幸福和完全自由的一切痛苦。

The sixth attribute of the Dhamma is an often quoted one.第六屬性的佛法,是一個經常被引用。 The Pali term for it is paccattam , which means that the Dhamma as an experience is directly known through intuitive insight and is thus a matter of personal knowledge.八里任期是paccattam,這意味著佛法作為一個經驗是直接通過直觀的了解已知,因此是一個問題的個人知識。 It is true that it can be heard from others, but to really know the Dhamma, such secondhand knowledge is insufficient.誠然,它可以聽到別人,但要真正了解佛法,這樣二手的知識是不夠的。 A direct experience is the most crucial factor in the realization of the Truth.一個直接的經驗是最關鍵的因素在實現了真相。

Direct experience is especially important where Nibbana is concerned.直接經驗是特別重要的地方涅槃關注。 In our normal day-to-day activities, even in the most ordinary matters, doubt and uncertainty arise from time to time when we lack direct
experience of the things we have to deal with.
在我們的正常日常的日常活動,即使是在最普通的事情,懷疑和不確定性產生不時當我們缺乏直接經驗的東西,我們必須處理。
Emotional
sentiments also require personal experience to really understand, they
cannot be understood through logic or verbal explanation.
情緒也需要個人的情感體驗,真正理解,他們不能被理解,通過邏輯或口頭解釋。
With personal experience, doubt and uncertainty disappear.隨著個人的經驗,懷疑和不確定性消失。 The Dhamma is a matter of personal experience. Paccattam implies wisdom or the ability to understand things deeply and correctly, according to their true nature.佛法是一個問題的個人經驗。Paccattam意味著智慧或事物的能力,深刻理解和正確,根據他們的真正面目。 Without a base of direct experience, doubt and uncertainty regarding the Dhamma can still arise.如果沒有一個基本的直接經驗,懷疑和不確定性的佛法仍然可以出現。 But with paccattam , or self-realization, there is no room for such doubts.paccattam,或自我實現的,沒有任何餘地這種疑慮。

The preservation of the Buddha's teachings 保存佛的教誨

The Buddha gave spontaneous discourses, attuned to particular listeners and situations. Originally, these discourses were collectively referred to
as Dhamma-Vinaya, or the Doctrine and Discipline.
佛陀了自發的論述,切合特定的聽眾和情況。原來,這些論述被統稱為佛法,戒律,或理論和學科建設。
They were memorized and preserved orally by the bhikkhus , who consequently specialized in reciting certain sections of the discourses.他們記憶和保存口頭比丘 ,因此誰在背誦某些章節專門的論述。 For
example, Venerable Ananda, the Buddha's personal attendant for many
years, was well-versed in the doctrine (Dhamma), while Venerable Upali,
another prominent disciple, was preeminent in the discipline (Vinaya).
例如,尊者阿難,佛的個人助理多年,是十分熟悉的教義(佛法),而法師烏帕利,另一個突出的弟子,是卓越的紀律(律)。
The
Buddha's teachings were preserved in this manner from one generation of
monks to another until they were committed into writing in Sri Lanka
some 500 years after the Buddha's Parinibbana .
佛陀的教誨都保存在這種方式從一代僧侶,另一個,直到他們承諾將寫在斯里蘭卡大約500年後,佛的Parinibbana。

After the Buddha passed away, councils were held from time to time to discuss important issues and pressing problems that had arisen within the
Sangha.
佛陀去世後,舉行了議會不時地討論重要問題和緊迫問題,已經出現在僧伽。
At
such councils, the Dhamma-Vinaya was recited to ensure its purity and
authenticity. Finally, the teachings were grouped together under three
categories, collectively known as Tipitaka or the Three Baskets.
在這樣的議會,佛法,戒律是背誦,以確保其純度和真實性。最後,同組的教導下三大類,統稱為三藏或三個籃子。

The first is the Vinaya Pitaka , the 'basket' of Discipline, which deals with rules and regulations laid down by the Buddha for monastic members.首先是律藏 ,'籃子'的學科,其中涉及的規則和規例所訂定的佛陀為寺院的成員。 The second is the Sutta (or Suttanta ) Pitaka , the 'basket' of Discourses, which contains the Buddha's many sermons or expositions of the Dhamma given to a wide range of listeners on
various occasions.
二是經(或Suttanta)藏 ,'籃子'的話語,其中載有佛陀的說教或論述很多的佛法,交給了一個範圍廣泛的聽眾在不同的場合。
The third is the Abhidhamma Pitaka
, the 'basket' of Higher Dhamma, which by and large discusses at great
length the philosophical and psychological aspects of the Buddha's
teachings.
三是阿昆達摩藏 ,'籃子'高等佛法,而根據大討論和大篇幅的哲學和心理學方面的佛陀的教誨。

The Tipitaka is the most sacred literature of Buddhists, believed to contain the words of the Buddha as preserved through the ages by his monk disciples. 三藏是佛教最神聖的文學,相信遏制的話,佛陀為保存歷代僧人由他的弟子。 It
is indeed a colossal work, containing as many as 24.23 million
characters in Thai script (many more if written in Roman script).
這確實是一個巨大的工作,含有多達2423.0萬字,泰國的腳本(如果有更多的寫在羅馬腳本)。
Together
with the earlier commentaries written by his disciples, not to mention
the later ones, the whole collection of Buddhist classical literature
contains more than 61.4 million characters in Thai script.
連同較早前由他的弟子寫評論,更不用提後來的,整個收集佛教經典文學包含超過6140萬字,泰國腳本。
The Tipitaka has been translated into many languages, and is widely read. 三藏已被翻譯成多種文字,廣泛閱讀。 A
good part of the earlier commentaries have also been translated from
the Pali originals, some of which, like Venerable Buddhaghosa's "Path
of Purification" ( Visuddhimagga ), are quite widely circulated and enjoy great popularity.
有相當部分較早的評論也被翻譯從八里原件,其中一些,像法師覺音的“路徑淨化”( 清淨道論 ),是相當廣泛流傳,膾炙人口。

Lay study of the Tipitaka 萊伊研究三藏

Although the Tipitaka and its commentaries are a vast storehouse of religious knowledge and spiritual experience, a layman need not despair of mastering the
subject. While it is true that a detailed study of the Tipitaka
and other sacred texts is a profound and time-consuming endeavor best
left to specialists or monks, since birth as a Buddhist and having
access to the Dhamma is a rare privilege, no responsible Buddhist
should neglect this opportunity to get acquainted with the Buddha's
teachings.
雖然三藏和評論是一個巨大的倉庫的宗教知識和精神的經驗,一個門外漢不必絕望掌握這個問題。誠然,一個詳細的研究和其他的三藏經文是一場深刻的和費時的努力最好留給專家或僧侶,自出生身為一個佛教徒及獲取的佛法是一種罕見的特權,任何一個負責任的佛教應該忽視這個機會,結識了佛陀的教誨。
Despite
family obligations and worldly concerns, lay Buddhists should endeavor
to study the Dhamma as much as they can, concentrating on those
discourses that appeal to them and are relevant to their needs.
儘管家庭義務和世俗的關注,居士應努力學習佛法,他們可以盡可能多,集中在那些能夠吸引他們的論述,並與他們的需要。
At the very least, some basic understanding of the religion and how to practice it in daily life can be gained.至少,一些基本的了解宗教的實踐,以及如何在日常生活中可以得到。 It
is within everyone's capacity to accomplish this, and such efforts will
be immensely rewarding, not only from the spiritual point of view, but
from the perspective of material success as well.
正是在每個人的能力做到這一點,這種努力將是極其有益的,不僅從精神的角度來看,而是從材料的角度,以及成功。

The five precepts, for example, are fundamental to all Buddhists, offering a practical guideline for moral conduct.五個戒律,例如,是所有佛教徒的基礎,提供了實際的道德行為準則。 Then there are the four Noble Truths, the four Virtues of Householders, the six Directions of a Householder's Obligations, the six Downfalls, the
seven Virtues of a Lay Buddhist, and numerous other teachings, which
are quite accessible to ordinary people and give clear indications of
how a good and useful life can be led.
然後有四諦,四美德的住戶,6個方向的一個家庭的義務,六挫折,七美德一居士,以及許多其他的教導,這是很方便一般人並給予明確的指示如何良好的和有益的生活能夠得到領導。
Following the path of Dhamma leads to happiness and freedom from the problems commonly associated with an immoral life.隨著道路的佛法導致幸福和自由的問題,常常與不道德的生活。

Buddhism is a religion of wisdom, and Buddhists should be wise enough to perceive the value of the teaching and make a sincere effort to
understand their religion.
佛教是一個宗教的智慧,和佛教徒應該有足夠的智慧感知價值的教學,並作出真誠的努力,了解他們的宗教。
With
Buddhism widely available and access to Buddhist teachers and
literature relatively easy today, there is no excuse for Buddhists not
becoming better informed in the Dhamma.
隨著佛教的普及和進入佛教的教師和文學相對容易的今天,沒有任何理由不成為佛教徒更好地了解在佛法。

The Dhamma as refuge 佛法作為避難

A refuge provides shelter from danger.阿避難提供躲避危險。 Naturally, this is something that all beings need.當然,這是所有生命的需要。 Even wild animals need some form of protection or other, such as forests or caves. Some people seek protection in wealth, believing that it can
help solve their problems; some seek protection from powerful people.
即使需要一些野生動物保護或其他形式的,如森林或洞穴。有些人尋求保護的財富,相信它能夠幫助解決他們的問題,有些來自權勢的人尋求保護。
There are also those who worship deities in order to seek their protection and favor.還有那些誰崇拜神,以尋求他們的保護和青睞。 Taking refuge (in the broadest sense of the term) is therefore almost instinctual, a matter of survival for all sentient beings.以避難(在最廣泛意義上的術語),因此幾乎本能,是一個關乎生存的眾生。 Human
beings take refuge, seeking fulfillment of their material or emotional
needs, in accordance with their beliefs, consciously or otherwise.
人類採取避難,尋求滿足他們的物質或情感需要,按照自己的信念,自覺或以其他方式。
Some refuges are sublime, some are gross, and others are just products of the imagination.一些庇護所的崇高,有些是嚴重的,和其他人只是產品的想像力。

The Dhamma is a refuge par excellence .佛法是一個卓越的避難所。 It provides true and lasting protection, not false hope or temporary shelter.它提供了真正的和持久的保護,而不是虛假的希望或臨時棲身之所。 It provides happiness and security not only in this life but the next, and even enables the attainment of the highest bliss of Nibbana .它提供的幸福和安全,不僅在此生活,但在未來,甚至可以達到最高的幸福的涅槃 But it is necessary to learn the proper way to take refuge in the Dhamma, and understand how the Dhamma can be a true refuge.但是,需要學習如何正確地採取避難的佛法,了解佛法如何能成為一個真正的避難所。 This may be better understood through an analogy:這可能是一個更好的比喻來理解:

A good medicine is useful to a patient only when it is taken properly.一個好藥是有益的病人只有當它是採取正確。 Even the best cure will be as useless as any other concoction if this fact is not taken into account.即使是最好的治療將被視為無用的,因為任何其他的堆砌,如果這個事實是沒有考慮到。 Likewise, the Dhamma can only be of true benefit when it is practiced properly.同樣,佛法只能是真正的好處時,實行正確。 The Buddha has been compared to a great physician, one who clearly diagnosed the spiritual ills of humanity and prescribed the Dhamma as a
remedy. Recognizing this fact, it is our duty to follow that
prescription and try earnestly to practice the Dhamma.
佛陀已被比喻為一個偉大的醫生,一個誰明確診斷的精神和人類的弊病規定的佛法作為一項補救措施。承認這個事實,我們有責任遵守這一規定,並嘗試認真實踐佛法。
Only then can the Dhamma really become our refuge.只有這樣,才能真正成為我們的避難所佛法。 Thus,
even if the Buddha and the Dhamma are there, ultimately it is each and
every one of us who must make the effort, just as much as it rests with
the patient to seek treatment and take medicine for himself,
notwithstanding the availability of the best physician and the most
efficacious medicine.
因此,即使佛陀和佛法的存在,最終它是每一個人,我們誰必須作出努力,就在於它盡可能與患者就醫吃藥為自己,儘管在可用性最好的醫生和最有效的藥物。
There is a saying in Jataka Nipata which is worth considering in this matter:有一種說法在本生Nipata這是值得考慮這個問題:

"If a sick man seeks not treatment even when a physician is at hand, the physician is not to blame. In the same way, if a man is afflicted with
the disease of defilements but seeks not the help of the Buddha (does
not practice Dhamma), then the Buddha is not to blame."
“如果一個人生病不尋求醫師治療,即使是在手,醫生是不會責怪。同樣,如果一個人患有這種疾病的煩惱,但目的不是幫助佛(不實行佛法),那麼佛是不怪。“

Just as there are different types of medicines to suit different ailments, so are the Buddha's discourses and the virtues to be cultivated
according to his teachings many and varied.
正如有不同類型的藥物來適應不同的疾病,因此,是佛陀的話語和美德來培養根據他的教誨多種多樣。
Improper
use of the Dhamma, based on ignorance or wrong view, may not produce
the desired results, so it is important to understand it correctly.
使用不當的佛法,出於無知或錯誤的觀點,可能不會產生預期的效果,因此重要的是要正確理解。
For
instance, hatred and anger should be countered by love and kindness;
excessive attachment to sensual pleasures should be checked by constant
reflection on the impermanent nature of things; greed and selfishness
should be countered with generosity and service to others; mental
restlessness should be corrected by the practice of concentration
meditation; compassion should be cultivated along side with wisdom,
etc. In this way the Dhamma can be a true refuge.
舉例來說,仇恨和憤怒反駁應以愛和善良;過度依附聲色犬馬,應經常檢查反省的無常本質的東西,貪婪,自私,應給予還擊,慷慨和為他人服務,心理不安應當糾正在實踐中濃度冥想;應該培養同情心一同與智慧,等等這樣的佛法可以是一個真正的避難所。

To be protected by the Dhamma it is, therefore, essential to take the initiative in the practice of the Dhamma.要保護,這是佛法,因此,必須採取主動,在實踐中佛法。 We must be open and receptive to the Dhamma. If we are willing to practice the Dhamma in daily life by refraining, for instance, from evil or
unskillful actions, it is not difficult to see how the Dhamma will
protect us from problems and undesirable experiences and will help us
to attain happiness and progress in life.
我們必須開放,並且樂於接受的佛法。如果我們願意實踐佛法在日常生活中的避免,例如,從邪惡的或不好的行為,不難想見,佛法會保護我們的問題和不良experiences並幫助我們實現人生的幸福和進步。

Is Buddhism a philosophy or an ethical system? 佛教是一個哲學或道德體系?

Terms like philosophy and ethics are used to designate certain disciplines of human thought and behavior.喜歡哲學和倫理條款是用來指定某些學科的人類思想和行為。 These usually result from logic and speculative thinking, but the Dhamma is the Truth discovered by the Buddha as a result of his supreme
enlightenment.
這些通常是由於投機性思維和邏輯,但佛法是佛陀所發現的真理,結果他的最高啟示。
The Dhamma is a way of life, a system of thought by which we live and on which we base our moral conduct.佛法是一種生活方式,一個系統的思想,使我們的生活和我們的基礎上我們的道德行為。 Both philosophy and ethics can be found embodied in the Dhamma, but the Dhamma covers a much wider scope.這兩種哲學,倫理學,可體現在佛法,但佛法涵蓋的範圍更為廣泛的範圍。

When the Buddha taught the Dhamma, he did not intend it to be characterized as either philosophy or ethics, he simply explained the
Truth and the course of action to follow in order to lead a happy and
useful life.
當佛陀教導的佛法,他不打算將它的特點是任何哲學或道德,他只是解釋了真理和課程的後續行動,以領導一個快樂而有意義的生活。
For
example, the first discourse, given to a group of five ascetics, begins
with his warning against the two courses of practice that were in vogue
at that time, but which he considered to be useless, ignoble, and
unprofitable.
例如,第一個話語,給一組,由五名修行,開始與他的警告對兩個課程的做法,在當時流行,但他認為是無用的,卑鄙,並無利可圖。
These are the extremes of indulgence in sensual gratification and the practice of self-mortification.這些都是極端的放縱的感官滿足和實踐的自我克制。 Then he explained the Four Noble Truths, which represent the reality of existence in all its aspects.然後他解釋了四聖諦,代表了現實存在的所有方面。 Finally, he taught the Noble Eightfold Path, which is the course of practice to realize the Dhamma.最後,他教了八正道,這是當然的做法,實現了佛法。 At the end of the discourse, one of the ascetics is said to have attained to the higher knowledge known as the Eye of Truth ( dhammacakkhu ).在最後的話語,其中一個苦行者據說已達到較高的知識,以被稱為真理之眼(dhammacakkhu)。

On another occasion, when the Blessed One saw a young man at a crossroads worshipping and prostrating in different directions, he advised him
that a nobler and better method of worship was to properly perform
one's duties toward other members of society.
在另一個場合,當世尊看到一個年輕人在一個十字路口崇拜和膜拜在不同的方向,他勸他,一個高尚的崇拜和更好的方法是正確履行自己的職責對其他社會成員。
The Buddha compared social relationships to the different directions which the young man had been worshipping.佛陀的社會關係,比較不同方向的年輕男子被崇拜。 According to the Buddha, the best way to worship them is by fulfilling one's duties in the light of those relationships.據佛,最好的辦法是崇拜他們通過履行自己的職責,根據這些關係。 Fulfilling one's duties is, in fact, the highest form of worship.履行自己的職責是,事實上,最高形式的崇拜。

The Buddha mentioned six kinds of relationship, which he compared to the six directions.佛陀提到的六種關係,這比他的6個方向。 Accordingly, parents are compared to the eastern direction, teachers are likened to the southern direction, spouse and children to the west, friends to the
north, servants and employees to the nadir, and monks to the zenith.
因此,家長相比,東部的方向,教師被比喻為南部方向,配偶及子女到西部,北部的朋友,僕人和僱員的最低點,和僧侶的頂峰。
To each of these people there are certain duties to fulfill, and fulfilling them is by far a nobler kind of worship.這些人的每個有一定的責任,履行,履行他們是迄今為止一個更高尚的一種崇拜。 The
Buddha also explained in detail the different duties that are inherent
in these six kinds of social relationships, beginning with how parents
should care for their children, and how the children should reciprocate
their parents' love and kindness, and so on and so forth.
在佛陀也詳細解釋了不同的職責,這些都是固有的六種社會關係,開始與父母如何照顧孩子,孩子應該怎樣報答父母的愛心與善良,等等等等。

It is true that certain discourses or teachings of the Dhamma may be deemed to come within the scope of either philosophy or ethics and may
be designated as such.
誠然,某些話語或教導的佛法可以視為來的範圍內或哲學或道德,並可能被指定為此類。
However,
one needs to keep in mind that as far as the Dhamma is concerned, such
designations are immaterial and add nothing of value to the Buddha's
teachings.
但是,人們需要記住,就在佛法來說,這樣的名稱是微不足道,沒有增加任何新的價值,佛陀的教誨。

The universality of the Dhamma 普遍性的佛法

Universality and timelessness are two most distinct characteristics of the Dhamma. These two characteristics are based on the fact that the Dhamma is
Truth itself, not a set of theories or principles.
普遍性和永恆性是兩個最明顯的特色佛法。這兩個特點是基於一個事實,即佛法是真理本身,而不是一套理論或原則。
It
is therefore not subject to any spatial or temporal limitations, like
laws or conventions which are products of human invention.
因此,不受任何空間或時間的限制,如法律或公約是人類發明的產品。

If something is created, or claimed to have been created, the foundation of such creation remains on shifting ground, and will
therefore be subject to spatiotemporal restrictions.
如果事情是創建,或聲稱已經建立,這種創造的基礎上保持地面轉移,並因此受到時空的限制。
The
laws of one country, for instance, will become irrelevant in another
(spatial restriction); or what has been deemed appropriate at a certain
point of time will become inapplicable at another (temporal
restriction).
一個國家的法律,例如,將成為在另一個不相關(空間限制),或有什麼被認為在某個適當的時間點,將不再適用於另一個(時間限制)。
The same thing can be said of cultures, traditions, or conventions, which are all human creations.同樣的事情可以說的文化,傳統,或公約,這是所有人類的創造。 Even
religious beliefs claimed to have been connected with God fall into
this category and are not free from the same weaknesses.
即使宗教信仰聲稱已連接與神屬於這一類,不自由來自同一弱點。
They
may serve certain purposes for some groups of people or for some
periods of time, but they lack the two important characteristics of
universality and timelessness, even if efforts have been made to claim
them.
他們可能服務於某些目的,某些群體的人或某些時期的時間,但他們缺乏的兩個重要特徵的普遍性和永恆性,即使已作出努力,要求他們。

The Dhamma, on the other hand, is not created.佛法,另一方面,不創建。 When the Buddha proclaimed the Dhamma, he did not invent it.當佛陀宣布佛法,他並沒有發明它。 What he did was simply proclaim the Truth, which he had realized through his own efforts and wisdom.他所做的只是宣布真相,他已經意識到,通過自己的努力和智慧。 He did not imagine things, nor did he find it necessary to claim God's grace in order to win followers.他沒有想到的事情,他也不覺得有必要要求上帝的恩典,以贏得追隨者。 His teachings represent the Truth, which is universal and timeless.他的教誨代表真理,這是普遍的和永恆的。

The Buddhist doctrine of conditionality states, for example, that all things and phenomena are conditioned and interrelated; there is nothing
that is not conditioned or is absolute in itself.
佛教教義條件狀態,例如,所有的東西和現象是相互關聯和制約,沒有什麼是絕對沒有空調或本身。
This is a simple statement of the Truth.這是一個簡單的陳述真相。 Based on this are the law of cause and effect, the law of kamma
, and the law of dependent origination, which are all different
manifestations of the same Truth and which are, likewise, universal and
timeless.
這是基於法律原因和影響,法律的業力 ,而法律的緣起,都是不同形式的相同,哪些是真理,同樣,普遍和永恆的。
Even
when the Buddha taught that all things are impermanent and are subject
to change, he was simply revealing the eternal Truth of existence, not
his own imagination or assumptions.
即使是佛陀告訴我們,一切事物都是無常的,會受到改變,他只是揭示了永恆的真理存在,而不是他自己的想像或假設。
On one occasion he said: "Whatever is of the nature to arise, that very thing is of the nature to disappear."有一次他說:“無論是自然出現的,這一點是很自然消失。” This
is sometimes referred to as the law of change, and it can easily be
seen how this truth will remain forever valid, irrespective of time and
place.
這有時被稱為法律的變化,它可以很容易地看到這個事實將永遠有效,不論時間和地點。
Such is the nature and quality of the Buddha's teachings.就是這樣的性質和質量的佛陀的教導。

Universality implies three fundamental characteristics: (1) the inclusion of all things and phenomena, collectively or individually; (2) an
all-embracing nature that transcends limits without exception; and (3)
being in existence or operation everywhere and under all conditions.
普遍性意味著三個基本特點:(1)列入一切事物和現象,集體或個人;(2)包容性,超越極限無一例外;及(3)被存在或運作任何地方和任何情況下都。
Thus,
the universality of Dhamma means that all people, animals, deities, and
things, without exception, exist in the Dhamma and that the Dhamma
exists and operates in all of those phenomena.
因此,佛法的普遍性是指所有的人,動物,神,和事物,沒有例外,存在於佛法,而佛法存在,公司在所有這些現象。
This
is the omnipresent quality of the Dhamma, and it is important to
understand this clearly in order to be convinced of our unity with the
Dhamma.
這是無所不在質量的佛法,而且是重要的,了解這清楚,以便說服我們的團結與佛法。

The timelessness of the Dhamma is also characterized by three attributes.在永恆的佛法的特點還包括三個屬性。 First, it implies an eternal state of being without beginning and end.首先,它意味著一種永恆的狀態被無始無終。 If something is created, it must necessarily have a beginning; and beginning consequently points to the other extreme, which is the end of
things so created.
如果事情是創建,它必須有一個開端,因此,開始點到另一個極端,這是年底的事這麼來的。
Whatever is subject to creation is, therefore, never eternal.無論是受創作,因此,沒有永恆的。 Secondly, timelessness means freedom from restriction in time.其次,從永恆意味著自由的時間限制。 Thirdly,
timelessness denotes the fact that the Dhamma can be proved in its
validity and consistency under all temporal conditions, according to
its own laws.
第三,指的是永恆的佛法能夠證明其有效性和一致性在所有的時空條件下,根據其自身的規律。

As the third attribute of the Dhamma, timelessness is expressed by the Pali term akalika , which is rendered into English either as "timeless" or "yielding immediate results."由於第三屬性的佛法,是表示永恆的八里長期akalika,這是呈現成英文或者作為“永恆”或“產生立竿見影的效果。” As has been pointed out, the Dhamma is eternal, beyond temporal conditions.正如已經指出的那樣,佛法是永恆的,超越時空條件。 It is interpreted as yielding immediate results to demonstrate how it can be continually experienced from moment to moment. Commentators construe
timelessness to mean the subsequent attainment of resultant
consciousness as occurring in the mental process of transcendent
realization and represented by one of the four phalacitta (fruition consciousness) that immediately follows the corresponding maggacitta (path consciousness).
它被解釋為產生直接結果表明如何能夠不斷地經歷了從時刻的時刻。評論員詮釋永恆意味著以後實現的意識,因而發生在心理過程的實現和超越所代表的4名phalacitta(開花結果意識)是緊跟相應maggacitta(路徑意識)。

The Dhamma is therefore not bounded by space-time factors; it is practical and applicable to all places and times, although it requires
understanding and wisdom to put its principles into practice and
applied to real life situations.
因此,在佛法界是由空間,時間因素,它是實際的,適用於所有的地方和時間,但它需要理解和智慧把自己的原則,實踐和應用的實際生活情況。

Allowance for change 津貼的變化

Before passing away, the Buddha authorized the Sangha to abrogate "minor and lesser" disciplinary rules that they might consider inapplicable or
irrelevant in later times.
逝世前,佛陀授權僧伽廢除“輕微和較少的”紀律規則不適用,他們可能會考慮在以後的時間或不相關的。
He did not allow them to change or modify the Dhamma.他沒有讓他們更改或修改佛法。 This
is another good example of the axiom that whatever is created is always
subject to space-time considerations and, therefore, lacks the
characteristics of universality and timelessness. Because the Vinaya
rules were formulated by the Buddha, he foresaw the need to rescind or
modify some of them in accordance with changing circumstances and later
developments.
這又是一個很好的例子,這個公理,無論是創建總是受空間,時間的考慮,因此,缺乏特色的普遍性和永恆性。由於律規則制定的佛陀,他預見到需要撤銷或修改其中一些根據不斷變化的情況和以後的發展。
That is why he made his position clear to the assembly of disciples who were present at the Great Demise.這就是為什麼他表態向大會的弟子誰出席了大消亡。 However,
the Sangha made a collective decision at the First Council to preserve
them and try to keep them intact, out of their love and respect for the
Buddha, in order to prevent future indiscretions by individuals who
might attempt to take advantage of the Buddha's permission.
然而,僧眾作出集體決定在第一局以維護他們,盡量讓他們完整,出於他們的愛和尊重佛陀,以防止今後失言個人誰可能企圖利用佛的許可。

The Dhamma, on the other hand, was not something that the Buddha had formulated for his disciples.佛法,另一方面,是不是已經制定,佛陀為他的弟子。 It was revealed and proclaimed according to the Truth he had discovered.據透露,宣布根據他發現了真相。 Thus it requires neither abrogation nor modification to suit later opinions or philosophical developments.因此,需要廢除或修改不符合後來意見或哲學的發展。

The essence of Dhamma 本質的佛法

The Buddha declared the doctrine of Dependent Origination ( Paticcasamuppada ) to be a very profound and difficult subject.佛陀宣布學說緣起(Paticcasamuppada)是一個非常深刻和困難的問題。 Its profundity and difficulty rest on both its theory and practice.它的深度和難度上都休息,在理論和實踐。 In fact, soon after his enlightenment the Buddha spent a whole week meditating on this particular Dhamma.事實上,不久後,他的啟蒙佛花了整整一個星期默想這佛法。 This doctrine is one of the subjects the Buddha often taught to his monks.這一理論是其中一個科目的佛陀經常教導他的僧侶。 Once Venerable Ananda casually remarked that it seemed easy to understand, but the Buddha hastened to correct him with a clear warning :一旦尊者阿難隨隨便便說,它似乎很容易理解,但佛陀趕緊糾正他與一個明確的警告:

"Say not so, Ananda, say not so! The doctrine of Dependent Origination is profound, difficult to understand. Sentient beings, through not
understanding this doctrine proclaimed by me, are befuddled like a
tangled and knotted ball of twine, or like a disorderly heap of tangled
threads, or an untended thicket of weeds, or like entangled reeds. In
such wise are those sentient beings ensnared, unable to liberate
themselves from Samsara, from suffering, and from the states of hell
and downfall."

“你說不是這樣,阿難,說不是這樣的!該學說緣起是深刻的,很難理解。眾生,不理解這個學說通過宣布的我,就像一個喝醉酒的糾結纏繞和打結球,或者像一個
無序線程堆的糾纏,或無人照管的雜草叢中,或像糾纏蘆葦。在這樣的聰明人是那些陷入眾生,不能解放自己從輪迴,從痛苦,從美國的地獄和垮台。“

The doctrine of Dependent Origination was specifically recommended by the Buddha for monks to study.該學說的緣起是專為推薦的佛陀僧侶學習。 It is one of the doctrines about which the Buddha had admonished his followers not to be divided or contentious, and which he asserted would
be "for the great benefit of mankind, for the well-being of the world,
and for the advantage of gods and humans."
這是一本關於該學說佛陀告誡他的追隨者不被分割或有爭議的,而他聲稱是“為人類造福的偉大,對幸福的世界,神的優勢和人類。“

The doctrine of Dependent Origination helps to clarify the Buddhist position concerning the false view of a permanent self ( atta ).該學說緣起有助於澄清有關佛教的立場虛假查看一個永久的自我( 阿塔 )。 According to the teaching, nothing is absolute, nothing is permanent, for all things arise, exist, and cease depending on causes and conditions.根據教學,沒有什麼是絕對的,沒有什麼是永久的,對一切事物產生,存在,並停止根據原因和條件。 Since
all things are conditioned, interdependent, and interrelated, the
existence of a permanent self is a logical impossibility.
由於所有的東西都是空調,相互依存和相互關聯的,存在一個永久的自我是一個邏輯是不可能的。

The principle underlying the doctrine of Dependent Origination has been succinctly summarized by the Buddha in a formula of four sentences:該學說的基本原則緣起已簡潔地總結了佛陀在公式的四句話:

This is, that is ( imasmim sati idam hoti );這是,這是(imasmim殉idam霍蒂 );
This arising, that arises ( imassuppada idam uppajjati );基於這個原因,由此而引起的(imassuppada idam uppajjati);
This is not, that is not ( imasmim asati idam na hoti );這不是,這不是(imasmim asati idam缺霍蒂 );
This ceasing, that ceases ( imassa nirodha idam nirujjhati ).這停止,即停止(imassa nirodha idam nirujjhati)。

This short formula covers the whole scope of existence and clearly demonstrates the interrelationship of all things.這個簡短的公式涵蓋整個範圍的存在,並明確表明了一切事物的相互關係。 Based on this principle of conditionality and interdependence, the doctrine of Dependent Origination is explained in many different forms.基於這一原則,條件和相互依存,緣起學說解釋在許多不同的形式。 However,
the best-known mode of exposition consists in the circle of twelve
links that are connected together by the law of conditionality:
然而,最有名的模式組成的論述在12圈的聯繫,連接在一起的法律條件:

1. 1。 Dependent on delusion are kamma -formations.依賴於妄想是業力 ,單位。
2. 2。 Dependent on kamma -formations is consciousness.依賴於業力 ,單位是意識。
3. 3。 Dependent on consciousness are mental and physical phenomena.由於依賴於意識的精神和物理現象。
4. 4。 Dependent on mental and physical phenomena are the six faculties of physical sense-bases and mind.依賴於心理和生理現象,是6個學部的物理意義,基地和心靈。
5. 5。 Dependent on the six faculties is (sensorial and mental) contact.依賴於 6個學部是(感官和精神)的聯繫。
6. 6。 Dependent on contact is feeling.依賴於接觸的感覺。
7. 7。 Dependent on feeling is craving (desire).依賴的感覺是渴望(慾望)。
8. 8。 Dependent on craving is attachment (clinging).渴望是依賴於附件(執著)。
9. 9。 Dependent on attachment is becoming.越來越依賴於附件。
10. 10。 Dependent on becoming is birth.是依賴於成為誕生。
11. 11。 Dependent on birth are:依賴於出生如下:
12. 12。 decay, death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, and despair.腐爛,死亡,悲傷,悔恨,痛苦,悲傷和絕望。

The doctrine of Dependent Origination also clearly invalidates the concept of a first cause.該學說緣起也明確的概念無效的第一個原因。 Each of the twelve links serves both as a conditioning as well as a conditioned factor.每個環節的12個服務既作為調節以及調節因子。 When all things are interconnected and interdependent, as shown by the law of conditionality, the idea of a first cause naturally becomes
irrelevant. Following along the same line of exposition, the Buddha
also points out how the whole structure ceases to be.
當所有的事情是相互聯繫和相互依存的,這顯示了law of條件,一個是思想的首要原因自然變得無關緊要。隨著同樣情況的論述中,佛陀也points out how的whole結構將不再向。
Thus, dependent on the cessation of delusion, kamma -formations cease; dependent on the cessation of kamma -formations, consciousness ceases; dependent on the cessation of consciousness, mental and physical phenomena cease, etc.因此,依賴於停止妄想, 業力 ,單位停止;依賴於停止業力 ,編隊,意識停止;依賴於停止意識,精神和身體現象停止,等

The practical objective of the doctrine of Dependent Origination is to show how suffering ( dukkha ) arises and how it can be brought to an end. Likewise, by having a correct understanding of this teaching, we come to perceive how Samsara arises and continues, and most importantly, how it can be ended. Nibbana is attained through the cessation of Samsara .客觀實際的理論緣起是說明如何痛苦(dukkha)發生,以及如何可以宣告結束。同樣,通過讓一個正確的認識這個教學,我們如何來看待輪迴產生和繼續,最重要的是,如何可以結束了。 涅槃是通過二者停止輪迴 Having
thoroughly penetrated the doctrine of Dependent Origination, one learns
how to completely unravel the knot of suffering and become a true
master of oneself.
在全面深入的理論緣起,一個學習如何完全解開死結的痛苦,成為一個真正掌握自己。
In this way, one becomes truly free and liberated.這樣,一個成為真正自由和解放。

The Buddha explained the Dhamma in many different ways to best suit his audience's intellectual and spiritual maturity, but his teachings all
point to the same Truth and lead to the same goal.
佛陀解釋佛法在許多不同的方式最適合他的聽眾的智力和精神成熟,但他的教誨都指向相同的真理,並導致同樣的目標。

In one of the verses in the Dhammapada, the Buddha has said: "Not to do evil; to do good; and to purify the mind: this is the teaching of all
Buddhas."
在一項法句的詩句中,佛陀說:“沒有作惡,要做好事,並淨化心靈:這是教學的所有佛像。”
This statement is often cited as the heart of Buddhist practice.這項聲明是經常被引用作為心臟的佛教實踐。 To
follow the path of the Buddha is, therefore, the giving up of what is
morally unwholesome, the doing of which brings about undesirable
consequences.
要遵循佛陀的路徑,因此,該放棄什麼是道德上不健康的,該做的,實現了不良的後果。
Observance of moral precepts laid down by the Buddha is one way to put this principle into practice.遵守道德戒律,佛陀所訂定的途徑之一是把這個原則付諸實踐。 In
addition, one learns to do good by performing wholesome actions, such
as charity, social services, supporting one's parents, cultivation of
kindness and compassion, and so on.
此外,學會做一個好通過執行健康行為,如慈善,社會服務,支持自己的父母,培養善良和同情心等。
These two basic principles are of great value and add to individual as well as social growth.這兩個基本原則是很大的價值和增加個人和社會的發展。 But the spiritual effort needs to go one step further.但需要的精神努力去一步。 By
purifying the mind, one moves up on the ladder of spiritual advancement
and experiences bliss and happiness on a higher level that is not
readily accessible to non-practitioners.
通過淨化心靈,一動了梯子上的進步和經驗的精神幸福和快樂在一個更高的水平,是不容易接觸到的非從業人員。
Purification
of the mind is achieved through meditation practice, which is praised
by the Buddha as one of the most direct ways to enlightenment.
淨化心靈的做法是透過冥想,這是讚揚佛為一體的最直接的方式啟示。
So
these three principles can be said to constitute the Buddhist modes of
ethical practice, and we have it from the Buddha himself that they also
constitute the teachings of all Buddhas.
因此,這三項原則,可以說構成了佛教模式的倫理實踐,我們有它自己,從佛陀的教誨,他們也構成了一切諸佛。

Elsewhere the Buddha proclaimed: "I teach nothing but dukkha (unsatisfactoriness) and the extinction of dukkha ."在其他地方的佛宣稱:“我教什麼,但dukkha(,苦)和消光dukkha。” This statement is, of course, made in the context of the Four Noble Truths, considered by most scholars to be the central teaching of Buddhist
philosophy.
這項聲明是,當然,在該範圍內的四聖諦,大多數學者認為是佛教哲學教學中心。
This is another example of how the one Dhamma can be expressed in different ways.這是另一個例子,一個佛法可以表示不同的方式。
Those who understand the essence of the Dhamma will see the unity of
all the different doctrinal themes and how they are fundamentally
interrelated.

An integral part of the Four Noble Truths is the Noble Eightfold Path, which comprises right view, right thought, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right
mindfulness, and right concentration. The three principles of
abstention from evil, doing what is good, and purification of mind can
all fit into the framework of the Noble Eightfold Path. We may even
assert that they are the same things expressed differently. In fact,
like the threefold training of morality, concentration and wisdom, they
are the Noble Eightfold Path expressed in another way. Thus we can see
the characteristic unity and coherence in all of the Buddha's
teachings.

Mind purification

As a religion, Buddhism gives much importance to the cultivation of mind and mental faculties. Life consists of two closely interconnected
components, the body and the mind, which constantly demand our care and
attention. Of these two, mind is said to be of paramount importance for
it is the very source of all actions that we do from birth to death. We are what we think.我們是我們的想法。 Therefore, it is crucial that we have the right understanding of our minds and know how to train them properly.

Mind is not as concrete and objective as the body, and most people give only little concern to their minds, taking more interest in their
physical forms and appearances. The body is well-nourished, kept clean,
and beautified, while the mind is almost totally neglected. The Dhamma
is nourishment for the mind; it cleanses the mind, and makes the mind
pleasant and beautiful. Just as an undernourished body is weak and
becomes a seat of disease, a mind starved of Dhamma is also weak and
becomes a source of problems. Crime, corruption, violence, and immoral
behavior are some of the symptoms of a mind which is uncared for,
uncleansed, and unbeautified by the Dhamma. It is therefore important
to train the mind, and the best way to do this is through meditation.

Mental purification is not an end in itself, neither is it an activity separate from real life situations. To practice meditation by no means
necessitates giving up family, leaving home, and retiring to a forest
or a cave, although such would be ideal for a monk. The process of
mental purification itself necessarily involves a morally skillful
life-style and the practice of the other two principles of abstention
from evil and doing wholesome deeds. Thus it can be seen that this more
refined practice has a direct bearing on both individual and social
well-being and is a truly beneficial commitment. Moreover, an action
which springs from a pure mind will naturally be free from evil and
full of wholesome qualities. A pure mind, indeed, is a natural and
unlimited source of good actions and benevolent deeds. Says the Buddha:
"Mind is the forerunner of all mental states, mind is their chief, they
are all mind-made. If one speaks or acts with a pure mind, then
happiness follows one as a shadow its owner."

Thus, mental purification is not practiced solely for its own sake, but for individual as well as social benefit. Its impact on personal behavior
and society can be truly tremendous.

The profundity of the Dhamma

Soon after the Buddha's enlightenment, as he was contemplating the Dhamma, its sheer profundity became clear to him. He was assailed by
doubt over whether it would not be futile to expound the Dhamma to the
world, enveloped as it is in the veil of ignorance and overcome by
greed and hatred. The Dhamma, reflected the Buddha, goes against the
flow of worldly thoughts and is difficult for people to accept. But out
of wisdom and compassion, he also perceived the different levels of
people's intellectual and spiritual maturity. Those "with less dust in
their eyes," having less delusion and defilements, would listen and
understand, they would benefit from the Dhamma. Thus the Buddha decided
to begin the mission that eventually led to the establishment of the
Buddhist religion.

Although the Dhamma is profound, it is not inaccessible. The fact that there have been so many Arahants and noble disciples, thousands upon thousands of them, both during and after the
Buddha's time, stands as a testimony to the intelligibility and
practicality of the Dhamma. Through his skillful means, the Buddha
placed the task of understanding the Dhamma within reach of every
interested person.

Moreover, the Buddha has provided us with an amazing variety of teachings to choose from. Not only is there teaching for those intent on achieving the ultimate realization of Nibbana
, but there is more than enough teaching for those who are content to
remain involved in the ordinary business of mundane affairs. An
opportunity is never denied those who care to seek. If only we pay
attention, we will see the Dhamma in everything around us and in all
existential realities. Even children are capable of understanding the
Dhamma, as very well demonstrated by the fact that during the time of
the Buddha quite a few children, as young as seven years of age, are
reported to have attained Arahantship. Certainly, the profundity of the
Dhamma is no excuse for denying yourself that which is best in life.

Many Buddhists see practicing the Dhamma as an act of merit making. Merits are accumulated, for instance, by a charitable act, by observing
precepts, or by practicing meditation. Becoming an Arahant in the
present life is never seen as a goal for such people. Although such an
attitude may not be considered the most ideal, yet such people are
following the path of Dhamma at their own pace. There is no reason why
the path should not be followed by those who wish to continue to
practice as householders. On more than one occasion, the Buddha
eloquently praised his householder disciples, who were diligently
practicing the Dhamma by engaging in various meritorious activities.
This should also be an inspiration to those who find the Buddhist
philosophy and the Dhamma practice on a higher level somewhat daunting.







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ယံုၾကည္ထိုက္သူျဖစ္ေအာင္ ရိုးသားရမည္။
အားကိုးထိုက္သူျဖစ္ေအာင္ ၾကိဳးစားရမည္။
ေလးစားထိုက္သူျဖစ္ေအာင္ စင္ၾကယ္ရမည္။
(ဓမၼေဘရီ အရွင္၀ီရိယ)

ေရေၾကာင့္ျဖစ္ေသာ အညစ္အေၾကးကို
ေရႏွင့္သာ စင္ၾကယ္ေအာင္ ေဆးေၾကာႏိုင္သလို
စိတ္ေၾကာင့္ျဖစ္ေသာ
အညစ္အေၾကးကို
စိတ္ႏွင့္သာလွ်င္ စင္ၾကယ္ေအာင္ ေဆးေၾကာႏိုင္ပါ၏။
(ဗုဒၶ)

ဓေမၼာဟေ၀ ရကၡတိ ဓမၼစာရီ
တရားေစာင့္ေသာသူကို တရားကျပန္လည္ေစာင့္ေရွာက္ေပး၏။ (ဗုဒၶ)

အသက္ရွင္ဖို့စားပါ။ စားဖို့သက္သက္ အတြက္ေတာ့ အသက္ရွင္ မေနပါနဲ့။ အမ်ားအတြက္ သာသနာအတြက္ လုပ္စရာေတြ အမ်ားၾကီးပါ။

သူေတာ္ေကာင္း သူေတာ္ေကာင္း

သူေတာ္လာေအာင္ ကိုယ္ကေကာင္း
ဒါမွ သူေတာ္ေကာင္း။
သူေတာ္ေကာင္း သူေတာ္ေကာင္း
သူမေတာ္လဲ ကိုယ္ကေကာင္း
ဒါမွ သူေတာ္ေကာင္း။

သူေတာ္ေကာင္း သူေတာ္ေကာင္း

သူမေကာင္းလည္း ကိုယ္ကေတာ္ 

သူမေတာ္လည္း ကိုယ္ကေကာင္း

ဒါမွ သူေတာ္ေကာင္း။
သူေတာ္ေကာင္းေလးျဖစ္ေစခ်င္ စိတ္ထားလွဖို႔ျပင္
သတိယွဥ္တယ္ သစၥာသံုး ဒါမွ အျမတ္ဆံုး။

ကတညတ ကတေ၀ဒီ
ေက်းဇူးတရားကိုသိျခင္း
ေက်းဇူးတရားကို ျပန္လည္ေပးဆပ္ျခင္းသည္ မဂၤလာမည္ပါ၏။
(ဗုဒၶ)

အတိတ္ကိုေတြး၊ မေဆြးနဲ့
အတိတ္ဆိုတာ ျပန္မလာဘူး။
အနာဂတ္ကိုမွန္းဆ မလြမ္းတနဲ့
အနာဂတ္ဆိုတာမေသခ်ာဘူး။
ပစၥဳပန္မွာ လုပ္သင့္ရာ၀ယ္
ပညာလံု႔လ အသံုးခ်လွ်က္
ဘ၀တန္ဖိုး အားမာန္ကိုး၍
ျမတ္ႏိုးၾကည္ျဖဴ အရယူေလာ့။
(ေဒါက္တာ အရွင္နႏၵမာလာဘိ၀ံသ)

ၾကီးျမတ္သူတို႔ေနရာ

ၾကီးျမတ္သူဟူသမွ်တို႔ 

ယူၾကသည္႔ ျမတ္ေနရာ။ 
ေရွာင္တခင္ခုခ်က္ခ်င္း 
လွ်င္းမရပါ။ 
မ်ားသူတို႔အိပ္ေနရာ 
ညခါပင္ သူမနား 
အျမင္႔ကို သူျမင္လို႔ 
သူအစဥ္ႏွစ္ဆတိုးလုိ႔ရယ္ 
ၾကိဳးကုတ္ေလသား။

(ျပည္တြင္း၊ ျပည္ပသာသနာျပဳ  အရွင္ဥာဏိက-ေျမာင္းျမ)

သူတစ္ဖက္သား၊မ်က္မာန္ပြါးေသာ္ တရားမကြာ၊ထိန္းေစာင့္ကာျဖင့္

ေမတၱာႏွလံုး၊ကိုယ္ကသံုးလွ်င္ အရွဳံးဘယ္မွာရွိခ်ိမ့္နည္း။
(မင္းကြန္း ဆရာေတာ္)

 

 

ျမန္မာဝက္ဆိုက္ ဘေလာ့မ်ား                 လမ္းညႊန္

(ပံုေပၚတြင္ ႏွိပ္၍ မူရင္း ေနရာသို႔ သြားေရာက္ ေလ့လာႏိုင္ပါသည္။)

 


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    ျမန္မာ သတင္းစာ ဂ်ာနယ္မ်ား စုစည္းရာ (၁)

 

    ျမန္မာ သတင္းစာ ဂ်ာနယ္မ်ား စုစည္းရာ (၂)

 

 

 

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